Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is located in the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, and is the westernmost country in continental Europe. Portugal is bordered by Spain to the north and east and by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south. In addition, Portugal includes two archipelagos in the Atlantic, Azores and Madeira Islands.
Portugal has witnessed a constant flow of different civilizations during the past 3,100 years. Iberian, Tartessian, Celtic, Phoenician and Carthaginian, Greek, Roman, Germanic (Suevi and Visigoth), Semitic (Arabic, Jewish, etc.), Moorish and other cultures have all made an imprint on the country's culture, history, language and ethnic make up. The naming of Portugal itself reveals most of the country's early history, stemming from the Roman name Portus Cale, possibly a Latin name mixed with other influences, meaning "Beautiful Port". During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal was a major economic, political, and cultural power, its empire stretching from Brazil to the Indies.