Taiwan is an island in East Asia, but the term Taiwan is also commonly used to collectively refer to the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which include the island of Taiwan, Lanyu (Orchid Island) and Green Island in the Pacific coast off the Taiwan island, the Pescadores in the Taiwan Strait, and Kinmen and Matsu off the coast of mainland Fujian. The main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, is located at 22°57′N 120°12′E, in East Asia off the coast of mainland China, south of Japan and north of the Philippines. It is bounded to the east by the Pacific Ocean, to the south by the South China Sea and the Luzon Strait, to the west by the Taiwan Strait and to the north by the East China Sea. The island is 245 miles long and 89 miles wide and consists of steep mountains covered by tropical and subtropical vegetation.
The legal status of the ROC and the right of the Taiwanese to declare formal Taiwan independence is contested by the People's Republic of China (PRC), which considers Taiwan to be part of its own territory and to be eventually reunified with mainland China.