Education in Montenegro

Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science of Government of Montenegro.
Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools (Montenegrin: Osnovna škola) at the age of 6 and it lasts for nine years.

History
Before 1868, there were only a few elementary schools in Montenegro. But between 1868 and 1875, 72 new schools opened serving approximately 3000 students. Elementary education became mandatory and was provided free. In 1869, a teachers' seminary school and the Girls' Institute were opened in Cetinje. The Girls' Institute was a specialized school for teachers of the elementary schools. In 1875, an agricultural school was opened in the newly developed town of Danilovgrad, but the school closed two years later due to the war with Turkey. Subsequently, a similar school opened in Podgorica in 1893. Increasingly, younger, educated Montenegrins took key positions in the growing government administration. In 1880, the first 'lower classical gymnasium' (grades 5-8) was opened. In 1902, it developed into a 'higher classical gymnasium' (grades 9-12). In 1899, Montenegro had 75 public and 26 private schools.

Educational System
The educational system is uniformed. The school curriculum includes the history and culture of all ethnic groups. The language of instruction is Montenegrin (Serbian Bosniak, Croatian), and so is Albanian in some elementary and secondary schools where there is significant presence of Albanians. All students up to Secondary schools are enrolled in public schools, which are financed from the republic's budget. In December 2008, Montenegrin Education Minister Sreten Škuletić said that in 2009, all school text books will be printed in the Montenegrin language as part of an educational reform. This will also include Dictionaries and grammar books.

Elementary education
Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all the children between the age of 6 and 14, when children attend the nine-year school (eight-year program is no longer in use).

Secondary education
Secondary schools are divided in three types, and children attend one depending on their choice and their elementary school grades:
Gymnasium (Gimnazija), lasts for four years and offer general and broad education. It is considered a preparatory school for college, and hence the most prestigious.
Professional schools (Stručna škola) last for three or four years and specialize students in certain fields, while still offering relatively broad education.
Vocational schools (Zanatska škola) last for three years, without an option of continuing education and specialize in narrow vocations.

Tertiary education
Tertiary level institutions are divided into Higher education (Više obrazovanje) and High education (Visoko obrazovanje) level faculties.
Colleges (Fakultet) and art academies (akademija umjetnosti) last between 4 and 6 years (one year is two semesters long) and award diplomas equivalent to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree.
Higher schools (Viša škola) lasts between two and four years.

Post-graduate education
Post-graduate education (post-diplomske studije) is offered after tertiary level and offers Masters' degrees, Ph.D. and specialization education.

Qualifications
Diploma o Završenoj Srednjoj Školi (High school diploma)
Diploma (Diploma Višeg Obrazovanja)
Diploma Visokog Obrazovanja (Bachelor's degree)
Magistar Nauka (Master's degree)
Doktor Nauka (Doctorate)

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